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Skull of a newborn
Skull of a newborn


Infantile reflexes
Infantile reflexes


Developmental milestones
Developmental milestones


Moro reflex
Moro reflex


Definition:



Information:

Infant development is usually divided into the following areas:

  • Cognitive
  • Language
  • Physical
    • Fine motor (holding a spoon, pincer grasp)
    • Gross motor (head control, sitting, walking)
  • Social

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT:

The physical development of the infant begins at the head, then progresses to other parts of the body (for example, sucking comes before sitting, which comes before walking).

Newborn - 2 months

  • Can lift and turn the head when lying on his or her back
  • Hands are fisted, the arms are flexed
  • Neck is unable to support the head when the infant is pulled to a sitting position
  • Primitive reflexes include:
    • Babinski reflex -- toes fan outward when sole of foot is stroked
    • Moro reflex (startle reflex) -- extends arms then bends and pulls them in toward body, accompanied by a brief cry, often triggered by loud sounds or sudden movements
    • Palmar hand grasp -- infant closes hand and "grips" your finger
    • Placing -- leg extends when sole of foot is stimulated
    • Plantar grasp -- infant flexes the toes and forefoot
    • Rooting and sucking -- turns head in search of nipple when cheek is touched and begins to suck when nipple touches lips
    • Stepping and walking -- takes brisk steps when both feet placed on a surface, with body supported
    • Tonic neck response -- left arm extends when infant gazes to the left, while right arm and leg flex inward, and vice versa

3 - 4 months

  • Enhanced eye-muscle control allows the infant to track objects.
  • Hand and feet actions begin to come under willed control, but are not fine-tuned. The infant may begin to use both hands, working together, to accomplish desired effects. The infant is still unable to coordinate the grasp, but swipes at objects to bring them closer.
  • Increased vision allows the infant to distinguish objects from backgrounds with minimal contrast (such as a button on a blouse of the same color).
  • Infant raises up (upper torso, shoulders, and head) with arms when lying face down (on his tummy).
  • Neck muscles are developed enough to allow the infant to sit, with support, and keep head up.
  • Primitive reflexes have either already disappeared, or are in the process of doing so.

5 - 6 months

  • Able to sit alone, without support, for only moments at first, and then for up to 30 seconds or more
  • Infant begins to grasp blocks or cubes using the ulnar-palmar grasp technique (pressing the block into palm of hand while flexing or bending wrist in). Does not yet use thumb opposition.
  • Infant rolls from back to stomach. When on tummy, the infant can push up with arms to raise the shoulders and head above surface and look around or reach for objects.

6 - 9 months

  • Crawling may begin
  • Infant can walk while holding an adult's hand
  • Infant is able to sit steadily, without support, for long periods of time
  • Infant learns to sit down from a standing position
  • Infant may pull into and maintain a standing position while holding onto furniture

9 - 12 months

  • Infant begins to balance while standing alone
  • Infant takes steps and begins to walk alone

SENSORY DEVELOPMENT

  • Hearing -- begins before birth, and is mature at birth. The infant prefers frequencies of the human voice.
  • Touch, taste, smell -- mature at birth; prefers sweet taste.
  • Vision -- the newborn infant can see within a range of 8 - 12 inches. Color vision develops between 4 - 6 months. By 2 months, can track moving objects up to 180 degrees, and prefers faces.
  • Vestibular (inner ear) senses -- the infant responds to rocking and changes of position.

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

Crying is a vitally important means of communication. By the third day of life, mothers can tell their own baby's cry from that of other babies. By the first month of life, most parents can tell if their baby's cry means hunger , pain, or anger. Crying also causes a nursing mother's milk to letdown (fill the breast). The inherent biological response in most humans to an infant's crying ensures the infant's survival.

The amount of crying in the first 3 months varies in a healthy infant, from 1 - 3 hours a day. Infants who cry more than 3 hours a day are often described as having colic.Colic in infants is rarely due to a problem with the body.

Excessive crying can be associated with child abuse . Regardless of the cause, it is a complex problem that deserves a medical evaluation.

0-2 months

  • Alert to voices
  • Uses range of noises to indicate needs, such as hunger or pain

2-4 months

  • Coos

4-6 months

  • Makes vowel sounds ("oo," "ah")

6-9 months

  • Babbles
  • Blows bubbles ("raspberries")
  • Laughs

9-12 months

  • Imitates some sounds
  • "Mama" and "Dada" are nonspecific (not used specifically for those parents)
  • Responds to simple verbal commands, such as "no"

BEHAVIOR

The behavior of the newborn is characterized by six states of consciousness:

  • Active crying
  • Active sleep
  • Drowsy waking
  • Fussing
  • Quiet alert
  • Quiet sleep

The ability to move smoothly from one state to another is one of the most reliable signs of nervous system maturity and health. Heart rate , breathing, muscle tone, and body movements vary with each state.

Many bodily functions are not stable in the first months after birth. This variability is normal and differs from infant to infant. Stress and stimulation can affect:

  • Bowel movements
  • Gagging
  • Hiccupping
  • Skin color
  • Temperature control
  • Vomiting
  • Yawning

Periodic breathing, in which breathing starts and stops again, is normal and is not a sign of SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome). Some infants will vomit or spit up after each feeding, but have nothing physically wrong with them. They continue to gain weight and develop normally.

Other infants grunt and groan distressfully while making a bowel movement but produce soft, blood-free stools, and their growth and feeding remain good. This is due to immature abdominal muscles used for pushing and does not require any intervention.

Sleep/wake cycles vary and do not stabilize until a baby is 3 months old. These cycles occur in random intervals of 30 - 50 minutes at birth and gradually increase as the infant matures. By age 4 months, most infants will have one 5-hour period of uninterrupted sleep per day.

Breast-fed infants will feed about every 2 hours. Formula-fed infants should be able to go 3 hours between feedings. During periods of rapid growth, they may feed more often.

Giving the baby water is not necessary and could be dangerous. An infant who is drinking enough will produce 6 - 8 wet diapers in a 24-hour period. Teaching the infant to suck a pacifier or his or her own thumb provides comfort between feedings.

SAFETY

Safety is very important for infants. Base safety on the child's developmental stage. For example, around age 4 - 6 months, the infant may begin to roll over. Therefore, take extreme caution while the baby is on the changing table.

Consider the following important safety tips:

  • Be aware of potential poisons (household cleaners, cosmetics, medications, and even some plants) in your home and keep them out of the infant's reach. Use drawer and cupboard safety latches. Post the national poison control number -- 1-800-222-1222 -- near the phone.
  • Do not allow older infants to crawl or walk around in the kitchen while adults or older siblings are cooking. Block the kitchen off with a gate or place the infant in a playpen, highchair, or crib while others cook.
  • Do not drink or carry anything hot while holding the infant to avoid burning the infant -- infants begin waving their arms and grabbing for objects at 3 - 5 months.
  • Do not leave an infant alone with siblings or pets. Even older siblings are seldom prepared to handle the potential emergency situations that may arise. Pets, even though they may appear to be gentle and loving, may react unexpectedly to an infant's cries or grabs, or may actually smother an infant by lying too closely.
  • Do not leave an infant unattended on a surface from which the child can wiggle or roll over and fall off.
  • For the first 5 months of life, always place your infant on his or her back to go to sleep. This position has been shown to reduce the risk of SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome). Once a baby can roll over by himself, the maturing nervous system greatly reduces the risk of SIDS.
  • Know how to handle a choking emergency in an infant by taking a certified course through the American Heart Association, the American Red Cross, or a local hospital.
  • Never leave small objects within an infant's reach -- infants explore their environment by putting everything they can get their hands on into their mouth.
  • Place infant in a proper car seat for every car ride, no matter how short the distance. Use a car seat that faces backwards until the infant is at least 1 year old AND weighs 20 pounds, or longer if possible. Then you can safely switch to a forward facing car seat. The safest place for the infant's car seat is in the middle of the back seat. It is vitally important for the driver to pay attention to driving -- not playing with the infant. If an infant needs assistance, safely pull the car over to the shoulder and park before trying to help the infant.
  • Use gates on stairways, and block off rooms that are not "child proof" -- remember, infants may learn to crawl or scoot as early as 6 months.

CALL YOUR HEALTH CARE PROVIDER IF:

  • The infant does not look good, looks different from normal, or is not consolable by holding, rocking, or cuddling.
  • The infant's growth or development does not appear normal.
  • Your infant seems to be "losing" developmental milestones. For example, if your 9-month old was able to pull to standing, but at 12 months is no longer able to sit unsupported.
  • You are concerned at any time.


References: Kimmel SR, Ratliff-Schaub K. Growth and development. In: Rakel RE. Textbook of Family Medicine. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007: chap 31.


Review Date: 2/27/2009
Reviewed By: Jennifer K. Mannheim, CPNP, private practice, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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789 Central Avenue, Dover, NH 03820
Phone: (603) 742-5252
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