Causes, incidence, and risk factors:
The hypothalamus helps control the pituitary gland, particularly in response to stress. The pituitary, in turn, controls the:
The hypothalamus also helps regulate:
- Body temperature
- Milk production
- Salt and water balance
- Weight and appetite
Causes of hypothalamic dysfunction include:
- Genetic disorders
- Growths (tumors)
- Head trauma
- Infections and swelling (inflammation)
- Too much iron
The most common tumors in the area are craniopharyngiomas in children.
Symptoms generally relate to the hormones that are missing. In children, there may be growth problems -- either too much growth or too little -- or puberty that occurs too early or too late.
- Breast enlargement
- Cold intolerance
- Hair or skin changes
- Loss of body hair and muscle (in men)
- Menstrual disturbance
- Weight gain
Low adrenal function symptoms:
Other, less common symptoms may include:
- Body temperature disturbance
- Emotional abnormalities
- Excess thirst
- Uncontrolled urination
Kallmann's syndrome (a type of hypothalamic dysfunction that occurs in men) symptoms:
- Lowered function of sexual hormones (hypogonadism )
- Inability to smell
Signs and tests:
Blood or urine tests to determine levels of hormones such as:
Other possible tests:
- Hormone injections followed by timed blood samples
- MRI or CT scans of the brain
- Visual field eye exam (if there is a tumor)
Treatment depends on the cause of the hypothalamic dysfunction.
- Tumors -- surgery or radiation
- Hormonal deficiencies -- replace missing hormones
Specific treatments may be available for bleeding, infection, and other causes.
Many causes of hypothalamic dysfunction are treatable. Most of the time missing hormones can be replaced.
Complications of hypothalamic dysfunction depend on the cause.
- Permanent blindness
- Specific problems related to the brain area where the tumor occurs
- Vision disorders
- Inability to deal with stress (such as surgery or infection)
Growth hormone deficiency:
Calling your health care provider:
Call your doctor if you have:
- Symptoms of hormone excess or deficiency
- Vision problems
Maintain a healthy diet and don't exercise too strenuously or lose weight too quickly. If you believe you have an eating disorder such as anorexia or bulimia, get medical attention: these conditions can be life-threatening.
If you have symptoms of a hormonal deficiency, discuss replacement therapy with your health care provider.
Low MJ. Neuroendocrinology. In: Kronenberg HM, Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2008:chap 7.