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Location of whiplash pain
Location of whiplash pain


Head trauma
Head trauma


Whiplash
Whiplash


Definition:

Whiplash is when the soft tissues of the neck are injured by a sudden jerking or "whipping" of the head. This type of motion strains the muscles and ligaments of the neck beyond their normal range of motion.

See also: Neck pain



Considerations:

When a vehicle stops suddenly in a crash or is struck from behind, a seat belt will keep a person's body from being thrown forward. But the head may snap forward, then backward, causing whiplash.



Causes:

In addition to car accidents, whiplash can be caused by roller coasters and other amusement park rides, sports injuries, or being punched or shaken. (Whiplash is one of the hallmarks of shaken baby syndrome .)



Symptoms:

You may feel pain and stiffness in your neck for the first few days following a whiplash injury. Then you feel better, but the pain and stiffness may come back several days later. This symptom can last for months or years.

The discomfort you feel may involve surrounding muscle groups in your head, chest, shoulders, and arms.



First Aid:
  • Try over-the-counter pain relievers like aspirin, acetaminophen, or ibuprofen.
  • For at least 2 to 3 weeks, avoid activities that bring on or worsen your pain and stiffness.
  • Don't lift or carry anything heavy or participate in sports.
  • Do not sit, especially at a desk, for long periods of time.
  • If possible, stay active by taking short walks.
  • If you have pain when you move your head or the pain involves your shoulders or arms, your doctor may recommend a soft neck collar or short-term prescription drug to relax the muscles.


Do Not:



Call immediately for emergency medical assistance if:

Call your doctor if:

  • Neck pain and stiffness comes back after it had cleared up
  • Neck pain is very severe
  • The pain spreads to your shoulders or arms
  • You have numbness, tingling, or weakness in your arms or legs
  • You have problems with your bladder or bowels


Prevention:

Headrests in your car can reduce the severity of neck pain from a car accident. Make sure that the headrest is positioned properly for your height.

If you do get whiplash, learn proper stretching exercises once your neck has healed. This reduces the chance that neck pain or stiffness will come back.



References:

Villafuerte J. Whiplash. In: Ferri FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2009. 1st ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier;2009:section 1.

Evans RW, Wilberger JE, Bhatia S. Traumatic disorders. In: Goetz CG, ed. Textbook of Clinical Neurology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2007:chap 51.

Verhagen AP, Scholten-Peeters GG, van Wingaarden S, de Bie R, Bierma-Zeinstra SMA. Conservative treatments for whiplash. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Apr 18;(2):CD003338.

Devereaux M. Neck Pain. Med Clin North Am. 2009;93:273-284.




Review Date: 7/10/2009
Reviewed By: Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, University of Washington School of Medicine; and C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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789 Central Avenue, Dover, NH 03820
Phone: (603) 742-5252
Toll free: 1 (877) 201-7100