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Blood test
Blood test


Definition:

A coronary risk profile is a battery of blood tests to measure your cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The profile can help determine your risk for heart disease .



Alternative Names:

Lipoprotein/cholesterol analysis; Lipid profile; Hyperlipidemia - testing



How the test is performed:

Blood is typically drawn from a vein, usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. The site is cleaned with germ-killing medicine (antiseptic). The health care provider wraps an elastic band around the upper arm to apply pressure to the area and make the vein swell with blood.

Next, the health care provider gently inserts a needle into the vein. The blood collects into an airtight vial or tube attached to the needle. The elastic band is removed from your arm.

Once the blood has been collected, the needle is removed, and the puncture site is covered to stop any bleeding.

In infants or young children, a sharp tool called a lancet may be used to puncture the skin and make it bleed. The blood collects into a small glass tube called a pipette, or onto a slide or test strip. A bandage may be placed over the area if there is any bleeding.

The blood is sent to a laboratory, where the following are measured:

Additional blood tests, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), may be added to the profile in some laboratories.



How to prepare for the test:

You should not eat or drink anything except water for 9-12 hours before having your blood drawn.



How the test will feel:

When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain, while others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing.



Why the test is performed:

For adults:

  • The first screening test is performed between ages 20 - 35 in men, and ages 20 - 45 in women.
  • Follow-up screening is done within 1 - 5 years, depending on the results.
  • Screening is performed for anyone who develops diabetes, high blood pressure , heart disease, or another illness caused by atherosclerosis .
  • Follow-up testing is done to determine how well diet and medications are controlling high cholesterol.

For children:

  • The first screening test is done as early as age 2 and no later than age 10 in children with risk factors such as a family history of high cholesterol or early heart disease (a history of heart attacks before age 55 in men, and before age 65 in women).
  • A first screening test is done in children who are obese (above the 85th percentile for weight) or who have diabetes.
  • Follow-up testing is done in 3 - 5 years if the child's cholesterol level tests normal.


Normal Values:

The ideal values are different for people without coronary artery disease or other risk factors than for those with known coronary artery disease, diabetes, or high blood pressure.

  • LDL: 70 - 130 mg/dL (lower numbers are desired)
  • HDL: greater than 40 - 60 mg/dL (higher numbers are desired)
  • Total cholesterol: less than 200 mg/dL (lower numbers are desired)
  • Triglycerides: 10 - 150 mg/dL (lower numbers are desired)
  • VLDL: 2 - 38 mg/dL

Note: mg/dL = milligrams per deciliter

Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.



What abnormal results mean:

Abnormal values may be a sign that you are at increased risk for atherosclerosis and related disorders, including:

  • Heart disease
  • Kidney disease
  • Poor blood supply to the legs
  • Stroke


What the risks are:

Veins and arteries vary in size from one patient to another and from one side of the body to the other. Obtaining a blood sample from some people may be more difficult than from others.

Other risks associated with having blood drawn are slight but may include:

  • Excessive bleeding
  • Fainting or feeling light-headed
  • Hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin)
  • Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)


References:

Gaziano M, Manson JE, Ridker PM. Primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. In: Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 45.

Daniels SR, Greer FR; Committee on Nutrition. Lipid screening and cardiovascular health in childhood. Pediatrics. 2008;122:198-208.

US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for lipid disorders in children: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Pediatrics. 2007;120:e215-219.




Review Date: 5/2/2009
Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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789 Central Avenue, Dover, NH 03820
Phone: (603) 742-5252
Toll free: 1 (877) 201-7100