Eclampsia is seizures (convulsions) in a pregnant woman that are not related to brain conditions.
See also: Preeclampsia
Toxemia with seizures
Causes, incidence, and risk factors:
The cause of eclampsia is not well understood. Researchers believe the following may play a role:
- Blood vessels
- Brain and nervous system (neurological) factors
However, no theories have yet been proven.
Eclampsia follows preeclampsia , a serious complication of pregnancy that includes high blood pressure and excess and rapid weight gain.
It is difficult to predict which women with preeclampsia will go on to have seizures. Women at high risk for seizures have severe preeclampsia and:
- Abnormal blood tests
- Very high blood pressure
- Vision changes
Eclampsia occurs in about 1 out of every 2,000 to 3,000 pregnancies. The following increase a woman's chance for getting preeclampsia:
- Being 35 or older
- Being African American
- First pregnancy
- History of diabetes , high blood pressure, or kidney (renal ) disease
- Multiple pregnancies (twins, triplets, etc.)
- Teenage pregnancy
- Muscle aches and pains
- Severe agitation
Symptoms of preeclampsia include:
- Gaining more than 2 pounds per week
- Stomach pain
- Swelling of the hands and face
- Vision problems
Signs and tests:
The health care provider will do a physical exam and rule out other possible causes of seizures. Blood pressure and breathing rate will be checked and monitored.
Blood tests may be done to check:
If you have eclampsia your health care provider should carefully monitor you. Delivery is the treatment of choice for severe eclampsia. Delivering the baby relieves the condition. Prolonging the pregnancy can be dangerous to both you and your infant.
With careful monitoring, the goal is to manage severe cases until 32-34 weeks into the pregnancy, and mild cases until 36-37 weeks have passed. This helps reduce complications from premature delivery.
You may be given medicine to prevent seizures (anticonvulsant). Magnesium sulfate is a safe drug for both you and your baby. Your doctor may prescribe medication to lower high blood pressure, but you may have to deliver if your blood pressure stays high, even with medication.
Women in the United States rarely die from eclampsia.
There is a higher risk for separation of the placenta (placenta abruptio ) with preeclampsia or eclampsia. There may be complications for the baby due to premature delivery.
Calling your health care provider:
Call your health care provider or go to the emergency room if you have any symptoms of eclampsia or preeclampsia. Emergency symptoms include seizures or decreased consciousness.
There is no known way to prevent eclampsia. However, it is important for all pregnant women to get early and ongoing medical care. This allows for the early diagnosis and treatment of conditions such as preeclampsia. Treating preeclampsia may prevent eclampsia.
ACOG Practice Bulletin Committee. Diagnosis and management of preeclampsia and eclampsia. Obstet Gynecol. 2002 Jan;99(1):159-67.
Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL. Obstetrics - Normal and Problem Pregnancies. 4th ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 2002:974-983.